Broadcasting, broadly defined, is a system of delivering audio broadcasts, commonly referred to as radio. Television and audiovisual transmission. How much freedom do they have in creating messages, and to what extent is it defined by press law? What is their role for society?
Radio and TV mission
The guidelines in which radio and television broadcasters can broadcast programs and broadcasts are strictly defined by the Audiovisual Law of December 29, 1992. According to it, the above audio and visual media must:
- Provide information.
- Present cultural goods and art,
- Facilitate the use of education, sport and global scientific production;
- To educate citizens,
- providing entertainment,
- Promote national audiovisual creation.
Can anyone install a radio or television?
According to the Press Law, public radio and television entities have the right to broadcast radio and television programmes. They can also be obtained by natural persons, legal persons and personal commercial companies, but on condition that they receive a license. This is recorded in the program registry.
If a radio or television program will only be available in one building, such as a school or university, a license is not required. It is also redundant in the workplace – if the content of the programs is limited to matters related to this activity and is aimed at employees or another strictly defined group of people connected with the broadcaster.
KRRiT – a body overseeing issues related to radio and television broadcasting
The National Broadcasting Council, or National Broadcasting Council, is a state body whose main task is to guarantee freedom of expression on radio and television. In addition, its role is to maintain independence from media service providers and video-sharing platform providers. It is also supposed to look after the interests of the recipients and users of the services. The KRRiT is also responsible for ensuring the pluralistic nature of broadcasting.
The National Broadcasting Council is made up of five members. Two of them are elected by the Seym, two by the president and one by the senate. Their mandate is 6 years. They must have exceptional knowledge and experience in the field of social communications. The members of the National Audiovisual Council independently choose the president and his deputy from among themselves.
The operating costs of the National Audiovisual Council are covered by the State budget.
TV programs and radio shows – the main guidelines
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TV broadcasters are required to air them in 33% Polish. quarterly time. However, they must originally be produced in Polish. Dubbing does not count for this time. News services, advertising, teleshopping, sports broadcasts, text broadcasts and game shows are also not included.
In addition, broadcasters of television programs must allocate 50%. quarterly time for European issues, of which at least 10 percent. one of them must be the work of independent European producers.
As for the authors of radio broadcasts, they are obliged to allocate at least 33 percent. monthly broadcasting time in the program of verbal and musical works. Plus, 60 percent. of them must be aired between 5 and 24 hours. This obligation does not apply to broadcasters of radio programs created entirely in the language of a national or ethnic minority, or broadcast in a regional language.
Advertising on television and radio – the framework for broadcasting them
The legislator has provided for the maximum total time for advertising messages and teleshopping. And so – between 6 and 6 p.m. it cannot exceed 144 minutes, and between 6 and 24 can be 72 minutes.
In addition, advertising slots may be broadcast at intervals of at least 20 minutes in television programs and at 10-minute intervals in radio programs. If the films were produced for television, the advertising block may be broadcast once every full 45 minutes of its duration. This does not apply to series, serials, documentaries and cinematographic films.
You cannot run ads at all while streaming:
- information services,
- programs with religious content,
- Journalistic and documentary programs of less than 30 minutes
- Children’s shows.
Films intended for children may be interrupted by advertising beyond the hour of their duration.
Media Division in Poland
One of them is the mode of financing. According to this division, the Polish system includes:
- Public media – as the name suggests, the funds for their operation come from public funds. Their budget is also fed by advertising. However, they cannot be broadcast during broadcasts, only in between.
- Commercial media – owned by private companies, often global corporations, which live off their own funds. Most of it is capital raised through advertising.
Public media in Poland
The mission of public media is the implementation of a public mission. They must broadcast various programs for the whole of society, as well as for its individual components, in the fields of: information, journalism, culture, entertainment, education and sport. These messages must not be biased. They should be characterized by pluralism, independence and innovation.
Public broadcasting and television units in Poland operate only as single-shareholder companies of the State Treasury.
In Poland, the public radio is Polskie Radko SA and the public television is Telewizja Polska SA
Income from Telewizja Polska and Polish Radio, that is, public media – where they come from.
In accordance with the Broadcasting Act, the budget for public television and public radio can come from:
- Subscription fees,
- Trade in broadcasting rights,
- Commercial Transfers,
- Other sources.