First aid step by step. Learn the rules that can save someone’s life

The woman provides first aid to the victim
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First aid is a term for the help given to the injured person by witnesses who do not have medical training. It may turn out that this basic and easy-to-learn knowledge will save someone’s life. Find out how to give first aid step by step.


  1. Take care of your own safety
  2. Call for help and assessment of the conscience of the person found
  3. Assessment of the victim’s breathing
  4. Initiate CPR

Take care of your own safety

The situation that will require your help can arise in various circumstances. Before approaching someone who is lying, you must first take care of your own safety. Therefore, it is important to consciously assess the situation, if nothing threatens the person who wants to help.

An example of potentially dangerous circumstances is a person lying next to broken electrical cables. It is not known if she was not electrocuted and if the rescuer approaches it, it will not pose a threat to him.

Call for help and assessment of the conscience of the person found

If nothing threatens us and we see a person lying in unusual circumstances, for example, while walking in a park, it is better to immediately start calling for help (“if someone is there, I have need help”), even before assessing the person’s condition. state.

If there is anyone else in the area, they will come running and their help will prove invaluable. Then come and check the consciousness.

To do this, it is best to stand on the side of the head and firmly shake the person lying down by the shoulders, asking if they can hear you.

It is not recommended to do it from the side of the legs, because if the person lying down is conscious, he can get scared and hit us.

If there is no reaction, declare the person unconscious and perform a breath evaluation. If, on the contrary, he reacts, it is necessary to determine what happened and, depending on what is discovered, rescue or call an ambulance (if the person found seems drunk, it may be necessary to call the police or the town hall police).

First aid – how to give first aid?

Assessment of the victim’s breathing

If the person found does not respond to our calls, they are probably unconscious and should therefore be checked to see if they are breathing. To do this, the airways must be unblocked by tilting the head back (in a person lying on their back).

Then put the cheek to the injured person’s mouth and look at the chest. As a result, several senses are used to assess breathing – sight, touch, and hearing. If you feel no breath on your cheek, hear no breathing, and see no chest movement for 10 seconds, assume the person is not breathing and begin chest compressions.

However, if he is breathing, it is then advisable to call an ambulance and place the person in the recovery position (which ensures the permeability of the airways necessary for breathing):

  • For the injured person lying on his back, straighten his legs and stand next to him on the side on which he wants to turn.
  • Next, place the hand on the helping person’s side perpendicular to the body, then bend it upward at the elbow at a right angle so that the palm of the hand is facing up.
  • The other hand is placed on the chest and the palm is placed towards the face, the outer part of it touching the chin on the side of the attendant.
  • With the other hand, the rescuer grabs the other leg, just above the knee, and pulls it up without lifting the foot off the ground.
  • Keeping one hand pressed against the cheek, the other hand is pulled over the leg so that the injured person turns to the side towards the rescuer.
  • The limb with which the injured was pulled is positioned so that the knee and hip joints are bent at right angles.
  • In order to open the airways, the victim’s head tilts back slightly.

Once the injured person is in this position, check to see if they are breathing occasionally until the ambulance arrives. If he stops breathing, CPR begins. It is important to note that if a spinal or pelvic injury is suspected, you should not alter the victim’s position as this could lead to further injury.

If you see heavy bleeding, you can try to stop it if possible.

Initiate CPR

As already mentioned, if during the assessment of the witness, the victim is not breathing, it is necessary to initiate chest compressions as soon as possible and call the emergency services.

Here, depending on whether there is someone else to help you or if you are alone, the procedure will be a little different. When you’re alone, it’s best to call an ambulance, turn on the speakerphone, and start compressions during the conversation. If there is someone else, they can contact the emergency room and we start CPR at that time.

Chest compressions ensure blood circulation in the body, especially to the brain, which is the organ most sensitive to hypoxia. For CPR to be as effective as possible, there are a few rules to follow:

  • Kneel next to the injured person and place your hands on the lower half of the sternum (about the middle of the chest).
  • Place the wrist of one hand on the back of the hand that is already on the sternum; then braid the fingers of both hands.
  • During the pressure, keep your arms straight, without bending them at the elbows (the pressure must come from the whole body, not just the arms, so the body gets tired less quickly); the arms are held perpendicular to the chest.
  • Compressions should be done at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute (you can count them out loud or mentally)
  • Compressions should be 5 to 6 cm deep; each time, the chest should return completely to its starting position, but without letting go of the hands.
  • Every 30 compressions you can perform 2 rescue breaths (each takes about 1 second), but it is not necessary – if the rescuer does not have a face mask and is afraid, he does not have to breathe, but only compresses the chest.
  • If possible, it is advisable to alternate with other people every 2 minutes (or more often if fatigue increases) during compressions.
  • Compressions are continued until: the casualty regains consciousness, the ambulance arrives, or the rescuer is exhausted.

Technique for performing artificial respiration:

  • The airways should be cleared by tilting the head back, then pinching the wings of the nose with the index and thumb of the hand resting on the forehead (used to open the airways.
  • After taking a normal breath, place your lips firmly around the victim’s mouth
  • You are given a normal, relaxed breath for about 1 second, during which you should watch your chest rise.
  • Give 2 breaths and resume chest compressions.

You should be aware that even the most detailed description will not replace hands-on skill learning. For this purpose, specially designed phantoms are used, which teach the technique of squeezing the chest and performing rescue breaths. Each person must undergo such training that they can help a person in need when needed.

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